François Piet, Mémoires sur l'île de Noirmoutier. The main force of the rebels operated on a much smaller scale, using guerrilla tactics, supported by the insurgents' unparalleled local knowledge and the good-will of the people. Mais Haxo avait prévu d'attaquer sur plusieurs points, il disposait d'une petite flotte, 19 navires de transport et de la frégate, La Nymphe. Taken by surprise, this division fought back but lost 400 men, including many captured. [38] In response, the Committee of Public Safety ordered him to "eliminate the brigands to the last man, there is your duty..."[38], The Convention issued conciliatory proclamations allowing the Vendeans liberty of worship and guaranteeing their property. CRETINEAU-JOLY (J.) Rare document on the Vendée war. Bataille de Noirmoutier (12 octobre 1793) A Republican column of 2,000, under general Louis Henri François de Marcé, moving from La Rochelle to Nantes, was intercepted north of Chantonnay near the Gravereau bridge (Saint-Vincent-Sterlanges), over the river le Petit-Lay. Much of this resistance was quelled quickly, but in the lower Loire, in the Mauges [fr] and in the Vendean bocage, the situation was more serious and more protracted. Vous aimerez peut-être : Rcf vendée : nantes pendant les guerres de vendée. The Vendéens seized a large amount of arms and gunpowder, but allowed the captured Republican forces to leave, after having sworn to no longer fight in the Vendée and had their hair shaved off so they could be recognised lest they went back on their word and were recaptured. Ce dimanche, une stèle est inaugurée à Noirmoutier pour saluer la mémoire des soldats "morts pour la France en mer". A large band of peasants under the leadership of Jacques Cathelineau and Jean-Nicolas Stofflet seized Saint-Florent-le-Vieil on 12 March. Many lived on monastery properties, and they overwhelmingly embraced the Revolution after these lands were seized and redistributed among them by the republican government. One of the leaders of this school of thought, Charles-Louis Chassin, published eleven volumes of letters, archives, and other materials supporting this position. Contributeurs : Pierre Gréau, Jean-Pierre Logeais La frégate La Nymphe, la corvette Le Fabius et la canonnière L'Île-Dieu engagent le combat en début d'après-midi. La bataille de Noirmoutier se déroula lors de la guerre de Vendée les 2 et 3 janvier 1794. ». En dehors des Hôtels-Dieu, les hôpitaux de l'Ancien Régime n'étaient pas conçus pour soigner. In : Lettres aux Amis de Noirmoutier, (1983) n° 52, p. 30-34 (BIB PC 180) Gicquel, Nicolas. La bataille de Noirmoutier se déroula lors de la guerre de Vendée les 2 et 3 janvier 1794. Lacking a unified strategy (or army) and fighting a defensive campaign, from April onwards the army lost cohesion and its special advantages. I have exterminated them all. It is located between Île de Noirmoutier and Beauvoir-sur-Mer, in the department of Vendée. En fait, il n'y a plus de guerre civile en Vendée ou, plus exactement, celle-ci ne dura que cinq mois, de mars (date du soulèvement des vendéens) au 1er août 1793 (date du vote de la "première loi" d'anéantissement), c'est à dire de la déportation des femmes et des enfants et de l'extermination du reste de la population…! Après avoir gagné en Bataille de Saint-Fulgent 22 septembre l'armée Vendée a décrété que la prise de noirmoutier était une priorité. [44] One specific target were the women of the region. Info du 18-12-2020 . By early April, in areas north of the Loire, order had been restored by the revolutionary government, but south of the Loire in four departments that became known as the Vendée militaire there were few troops to control rebels and what had started as rioting quickly took on the form of a full insurrection led by priests and the local nobility. Les jeudis 24 et 31 décembre, la salle de … Note: Citations are based on reference standards. Towns and cities were also renamed, but at heart, in villages and farms, the old names remained the same. Many prisoners were taken, some of whom went over to the Vendean cause, while many of the citizens fled to Tours. Noirmoutier-en-l'Île : toute l'actualité en direct, soyez informé des événements, des sorties, de l'agenda, des loisirs et des sports tout au long de la journée What did was the forced conscription. La mise en ligne des archives conservées au Service historique de la Défense et aux Archives nationales a constitué, à cet égard, deux épisodes majeurs de cette entreprise. Successes continued for some time: Thouars was taken in early May and Saumur in June; there were victories at Châtillon and Vihiers. Mona Ozouf and François Furet maintain it was not. Tens of thousands of civilians were massacred by the infernal columns. Rebellion had first flared in August 1792, but had been immediately quelled. Les républicains eurent la surprise de trouver Maurice Gigost d'Elbée parmi leurs prisonniers, l'ancien général en chef passait pour mort auprès des autorités républicaines. The entire territory, none of it unified under a single idea from the ancien regime, had never been a region morally at odds with the rest of the nation. Une étude juridique", Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth, Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau, List of people associated with the French Revolution, Persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire, Decline of Buddhism in the Indian subcontinent, Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, Persecution of Muslims during Ottoman contraction, Persecution of Christians in the Eastern Bloc, Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries, Attacks by Islamic extremists in Bangladesh, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=War_in_the_Vendée&oldid=996024389, French Republican military leaders of the French Revolutionary Wars, Republican military leaders of the War in the Vendée, Military leaders of the French Revolutionary Wars, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from March 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Inhabitants of the Vendee: ~170,000 military and civilians killed (75–80% royalists and 20–25% republicans), Markoff, John. In the published version of his thesis, he incorporated some of Tilly's own arguments: that conflicts within communities generalized into a region-wide confrontation of anti-revolutionary majority based in the countryside with a pro-revolutionary minority that had particular strength in the cities. Exciting texts on • Vendée War 1794 • Chouans • Bouin • Tiffauges • General de Charette • Chollet • French Revolution Superb historical document of 4 pages. Histoire de la guerre de la Vendée : Cartes du théâtre des guerres de la Vendée et de la chouannerie. "[40] Such killing of civilians would have been an explicit violation of the convention's orders to Westermann. First, Secher assumes a constant birth rate of about 37 per thousand of population, when actually, Tilly maintains, the population was declining. Nous utilisons des cookies et des outils similaires pour faciliter vos achats, fournir nos services, pour comprendre comment les clients utilisent nos services afin de pouvoir apporter des améliorations, et pour présenter des annonces. Within a week, violence had spread to the Breton marshlands; peasants overran the town of Machecoul on 11 March, and several hundred Republican citizens were massacred. [12] Persecution of the clergy and of the faithful was the first trigger of the rebellion; the second being conscription. [8] Even the regicide did not trigger insurrection. Il est situé entre l'île de Noirmoutier et Beauvoir-sur-Mer, dans le département de la Vendée . Beyond the controversial interpretations of genocide, other historians posit the insurrection as a revolt against conscription that cascaded to include other complaints. [18], Within a few weeks the rebel forces had formed a substantial, if ill-equipped, army, the Royal and Catholic Army, supported by two thousand irregular cavalry and a few captured artillery pieces. Un projet dément sorti tout droit d'un cauchemar énarquien consistant à détruire le sous-sol marin autours des Îles et de Noirmoutier par l'implantation irréaliste d'éoliennes de 200 mètres de haut a été voté par tous les partis ( sauf RN) au conseil régional. [59] This conflict originated in the 19th century between two groups of historians, the Bleus, named for their support of the republicans, who based their findings on archives from the uprising and the Blancs, named for their support of the monarchy and the Catholic Church, who based their findings on local oral histories. Plusieurs articles publiés dans le dernier numéro des Cahiers des … René de Tinguy est gouverneur de l'île et Benjamain Dubois de La Pastelière, ancien capitaine de la garde nationale de Soullans est commandant du chef-lieu[4]. The Hidden Rebellion, winner of the 2017 Remi film award, has aired on EWTN and is available for purchase on DVD. La Chapelle des Martyrs de Noirmoutier . [58], The popular historiography of the War in the Vendée is deeply rooted in conflicts between different schools of French historiography, and, as a result, writings on the uprising are generally highly partisan, coming down strongly in support of the revolutionary government or the Vendéen royalists. Charles-Louis Chassin, La Vendée Patriote (1793-1800), Tome III, édition Paul Dupont, 1893-1895, p.176-179. The War of the Vendée (2012), written and directed by Jim Morlino, won awards for "Best Film For Young Audiences" (Mirabile Dictu International Catholic Film Festival, at the Vatican) and "Best Director" (John Paul II International Film Festival, Miami, FL).[88][89]. [54], Peter McPhee says that the pacification of the Vendée does not fit either the United Nations' CPPCG definition of genocide because the events happened during a civil war. On October 11, 1793, the Second Battle of Châtillon took place at Châtillon-sur-Sèvre near the commune of Mauléon. [71], Critics of Secher's thesis have alleged that his methodology is flawed. [67] Timothy Tackett of the University of California summarizes the case as such: "In reality ... the Vendée was a tragic civil war with endless horrors committed by both sides—initiated, in fact, by the rebels themselves. La cayenne (du latin "caya", s... Lire la suite [6] Alexis de Tocqueville noted that most French nobles lived in cities by 1789. Ce qui met vraiment fin à la guerre de Vendée, c’est le concordat de 1801. Il s'agissait surtout d'hospices situés dans les villes ou les gros bourgs, éloignés des populations rurales. Deux diversions sont tentées au nord de l'île. Although the Vendeans, to use the term loosely, wrote God and King large on their flags, they invested those symbols of their tradition with something other than regret for the lost regime. [45][46][47], Among those killed towards the end of the conflict were Saint Guillaume Repin and 98 other religious, many of whom were later beatified by the Catholic Church. Despite not being specialists in the subject, historians such as Pierre Chaunu have put all the weight of their great moral authority behind the development of an anathematizing discourse, and have dismissed any effort to look at the subject reasonably. Vue de Noirmoutier, prise de l'entrée du port, lithographie de Gibert (A.D. 44, 9 Fi Noirmoutier 1) ; en surimpression, la signature de d'Elbée sur sa lettre du 25 février 1791 (A.D. 85, L 2406) Ce voyage de d’Elbée à Noirmoutier fut une conséquence de son mariage. There followed a series of skirmishes and armed contacts: On 3 May 1793, Bressuire fell to Vendéen forces led by Henri de la Rochejaquelein.[24]. Comme on peut le constater sur cette carte, la Vendée Militaire ne reflète pas la vérité du terrain et le terme Guerres de Vendée doit son nom au fait du départ de la révolte. D'Elbée, blessé depuis la bataille de Cholet (17 octobre 1793), ne pouvait marcher et avait été placé sur un fauteuil. The specific requirements or preferences of your reviewing publisher, classroom teacher, institution or organization should be applied. François Lebrun, « La guerre de Vendée : massacre ou génocide ? "[80] Pierre Chaunu[70] describes it as the first "ideological genocide". Les représentants ordonnèrent ensuite la mise à mort de tous les prisonniers entassés dans l'église. Confiants en la parole de Haxo, considéré comme un officier loyal[1], les Vendéens cessèrent le combat, déposèrent les armes puis se retirèrent dans l'église et le château pendant que les républicains faisaient leur entrée dans la ville. From then, the local conflicts grew more sharply defined, over the choice between juring and non-juring priests. The victory gave the insurgents a massive supply of arms, including 50 cannons. Smith, Digby. Château de Noirmoutier-en-l'Ile: documents très intéressants sur la guerre de vendée - consultez 464 avis de voyageurs, 234 photos, les meilleures offres et comparez les prix pour Noirmoutier-en … La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 28 novembre 2020 à 16:48. It is set during the French Revolutionary Wars and very loosely based on the chapter of the same name in C. S. Forester's novel, Mr. Midshipman Hornblower and on the actual ill-fated Quiberon expedition of 1795. Parmi les souvenirs des Guerres de Vendée sur l’île de Noirmoutier, il en est un, très discret, qui commémore un terrible massacre de prisonniers vendéens commis en janvier 1794 : la Chapelle des Martyrs. Les exécutions durèrent deux jours, les corps entassés dans une fosse ne furent enterrés qu'au bout d'un mois. Guerre de Vendée Coordonnées 46° 58′ 00″ nord, 2° 13′ 00″ ouest Géolocalisation sur la carte: Vendée Bataille de Noirmoutier Géolocalisation sur la carte: Pays de la Loire Bataille de Noirmoutier Géolocalisation sur la carte: France Bataille de Noirmoutier modifier La deuxième bataille de Noirmoutier se déroule lors de la guerre de Vendée . New illustrated edition Volume first and second only. London: Greenhill, 1998, p. 48. Les guerres de Vendée sont-elles assimilables à un génocide ? Troisième Guerre de Vendée (1799-1800) Montaigu — Les Aubiers — La Flocellière — Chambretaud. [81] Mark Levene, a historian who specializes in the study of genocide,[82] considers the Vendée "an archetype of modern genocide". Voir plus d'idées sur le thème Guerre, Vendée, Révolution française. [9] It was not until the social unrest and the fear of The Terror (a period between 1793 and 1794 where tens of thousands of people were beheaded by use of guillotine) combined with the external pressures from the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790) and the introduction of a levy of 300,000 on the whole of France, decreed by the National Convention in February 1793, that the region erupted. La Terreur et les guerres de Vendée (1793-1794) Document 1 : deux discours à la Convention Les mêmes circonstances que l’année dernière se reproduisent aujourd’hui ; les mêmes dangers nous menacent (…) Eh bien, soyons terribles ; faiso ns la guerre en lion (…) Pourquoi n’établissons- nous pas un gouvernement provisoire (…) Ce Comité p ourra enfin mettre à exécution des me Most importantly, however, Secher broke with conventional assessments by asserting on the basis of minimal evidence, Tilly claims, that the pre-revolutionary Vendée was more prosperous than the rest of France (to better emphasize the devastation of the war and the repression). Haxo craignait de plus l'importante artillerie vendéenne qui risquait de faire des ravages lors de l'attaque de la ville. La bataille de Noirmoutier se déroula lors de la guerre de Vendée les 2 et 3 janvier 1794. Le 3 janvier, les républicains s'emparent de l'île de Noirmoutier sous promesse de vie sauve faite aux Vendéens par le général Haxo. [79] Further support comes from Adam Jones, who wrote in Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction a summary of the Vendée uprising, supporting the view that it was a genocide: "the Vendée Uprising stands as a notable example of a mass killing campaign that has only recently been conceptualized as 'genocide'" and that while this designation "is not universally shared ... it seems apt in the light of the large scale murder of a designated group (the Vendéan civilian population). Cette partie de notre histoire, comme vous allez pouvoir le découvrir, a été occultée par l’histoire officielle, et est absente des manuels scolaires. The battle. Arriving at Granville, they found the city surrounded by Republican forces, with no British ships in sight. Les officiers et les prêtres furent en revanche fusillés sur la place d'Armes. The departments included in the uprising, called the Vendée Militaire, included the area between the Loire and the Layon rivers: Vendée (Marais, Bocage Vendéen, Collines Vendéennes), part of Maine-et-Loire west of the Layon, and the portion of Deux-Sèvres west of the River Thouet. … "[15], Although town dwellers were more likely to support the Revolution in the Vendée,[16] support for the revolution among the rural peasantry was not unknown. In addition to Secher and Chaunu, Kurt Jonassohn and Frank Chalk also consider it a case of genocide. Article suivant (09/01/2011) AU SOMMAIRE DES CAHIERS DES MAUGES N°10. Informé, Haxo propose de retarder l'expédition mais Turreau refuse et donne l'ordre de poursuivre[2]. Dès le 4 mars, les premières échauffourées opposent à Cholet les forces de l'ordre aux jeunes gens refusant le tirage au sort de la conscription. La salle de lecture est ouverte du lundi au vendredi de 9h à 12h et de 13h30 à 17h sur rendez-vous et dans la limite des places disponibles.Réservation au 02 51 37 71 33. Retrouvez le Chef Sébastien Moreau de L' écume gourmande à Bouin pour un RDV culinaire live autour du Merlan de Vendée et de la pomme de terre de Noirmoutier ! The Blancs, generally members of the former nobility and clergy themselves, argued (frequently using the same documents as Chassin, but also drawing from contemporary memoirs and oral histories) that the peasants were acting out of a genuine love for the nobility and a desire to protect the Catholic Church. Haxo peut donc faire sa jonction à Barbâtre avec les hommes de Jordy pendant que les Vendéens se replient sur Noirmoutier-en-l'Île. Rappelons que la RBV est un itinéraire touristique alliant la découverte des petits vignobles et la gastronomie en Vendée SUD avec les lieux mémoriels de batailles de la guerre de Vendée du secteur. Youths from communes surrounding Cholet, a large textile town on the boundary between the two regions, invaded the town and killed the commander of the National Guard, a "patriotic" (pro-revolutionary) manufacturer. Treaties were concluded at La Jaunaye (15 February 1795) and at La Mabillaie, and were fairly well observed by the Vendeans; no obstacle remained but the feeble and scattered remnant of the Vendeans still under arms and the Chouans. [Félix Deniau; François Chamard; François Uzureau; Jean-Dominique Cassini] [33], The Vendeans won a victory over the revolutionary army led by Santerre at the Battle of Vihiers on 18 July 1793. Jean Julien Michel Savary, Guerres des Vendéens et des Chouans contre la République, t. III , p. 5-9. texte en ligne sur google livres [34], The Battle of Luçon was actually a series of three engagements fought over four weeks, the first on 15 July and the last on 14 August 1793, between Republican forces under Augustin Tuncq and Vendean forces. [37], On 1 August 1793, the Committee of Public Safety ordered General Jean-Baptiste Carrier to carry out a "pacification" of the region by complete physical destruction. De Barbâtre à la Croix du Magnificat, de la place d’armes à la Chapelle des Martyrs, les hauts lieux des Guerres de Vendée ont jalonné, samedi dernier, le parcours du Souvenir Vendéen à Noirmoutier. Secher argued that the actions of the French republican government during the War in the Vendée was the first modern genocide. Le 11 mars 1793 c'est toute la région des Mauges qui se soulève, St-Florent, Tiffauge, Chemillé puis la ville de Cholet le 14 mars. L'île de Noirmoutier a pour se défendre 1 800[1],[2] à 2 000[4] soldats vendéens, sous les ordres d'Alexandre Pineau[4]. [49], Under orders from the Committee of Public Safety in February 1794, the Republican forces launched their final "pacification" effort (named Vendée-Vengé or "Vendée Avenged"): twelve infernal columns under Louis Marie Turreau, marched through the Vendée. La Vendée, deux ans de guerre (1914-1916). Émile Gabory, Les Guerres de Vendée, Robert Laffont, édition de 2009 , p.326-327. [38] These orders were not carried out immediately, but a steady stream of demands for total destruction persisted. Archives de la guerre de Vendée conservées aux Archives nationales : guide des sources par Jacques Hussenet (juin 2013) 4 ... ment la victoire de Savenay, la reprise de Noirmoutier et l’arrestation du prince de Talmont (dossiers 860-862). Finally, Secher understated the population present at the end of the conflict by ending it 1802, not 1794. After their victory at the battle of Saint-Fuldent on 22 September, Charette and Lescure had parted ways. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. La Guerre de Vendée de 1793 a marqué l’histoire de toute une région. "The West in France in 1789: The Religious Factor in the Origins of the Counterrevolution,", Censer, Jack R. "Historians Revisit the Terror—Again. in-8 paperbacks, paperback covers (faded cover, some foxing ), LXIV 519 pp., 602 pp., illustrated covers. Historians such as Reynald Secher have described these events as "genocide", but most scholars reject the use of the word as inaccurate. De son côté, Charette n'ignore pas l'imminence de cette attaque, aussi il tente une diversion et investit Machecoul. [36], The Battle of Tremblaye (15 October 1793) took place near Cholet during the war in the Vendée, and was a Republican victory over the Vendéens. Elles marquent le début de ce qu’on a appelé les guerres de Vendée. Cette première attaque tourne mal pour les Républicains, les Vendéens répondent à boulets rouges, Le Fabius est démâté et en partie incendié, tandis que La Nymphe s'égare à la suite d'une erreur du pilote, et perd deux hommes tués et deux blessés[3]. In 1791, two representatives on mission informed the National Assembly of the disquieting condition of Vendée, and this news was quickly followed by the exposure of a royalist plot organized by the Marquis de la Rouërie. ", Markoff, John. "[68] Hugh Gough (Professor of history at University College Dublin) called Secher's book an attempt at historical revisionism unlikely to have any lasting impact. [75], In the heart of the modern controversy lies Secher's evidence, which Charles Tilly analyzed in 1990. [42] ", "Jacques Villemain, Vendée, 1793–1794. Pourtant, malgré les protestations du général, les 1 800 défenseurs de la garnison seront fusillés sous les ordres des représentants en mission Prieur de la Marne, Louis Turreau et Bourbotte. The Vendéens proved unable to take the bridge for six hours, until Louis Marie de Lescure (fighting in his first battle) showed himself alone on the bridge under enemy fire and encouraged his men to follow him, which they did, crossing the bridge. À une heure de l'après-midi, les républicains étaient parvenus à s'emparer de Barbâtre. Secher's statistical procedure relied on three unjustifiable assumptions. Découvrez La guerre de Vendée analysée par Alain GALOIN au travers d’œuvres et d’images d’archive. La Vendée fait partie des régions du Pays de la Loire et de la région historique du Poitou. Crime de guerre ? [31], From January to May 1794, 20,000 to 50,000 Vendean civilians were massacred by the colonnes infernales ("infernal columns") of the general Louis Marie Turreau. Maison de la Bonne Presse nd (1895-96), Paris. Cependant, le temps jouait en faveur des Vendéens, la marée remontait et si les républicains ne remportaient pas la victoire assez vite, ils risquaient d'être momentanément coupés du continent et de se retrouver sans subsistances. Mais alors que les républicains franchissaient le pont de la Corbe, à 3 heures de l'après-midi, des parlementaires vendéens se présentèrent. The use of the word genocide is wholly inaccurate and inappropriate. Haxo tenta de s'opposer à cette mesure mais en vain, les représentants avaient autorité dans ce domaine. In that action, a Vendean Royalist force led by Louis Marie de Lescure and Charles de Bonchamps skirmished with a column of French Republican soldiers from the Coasts of La Rochelle Army. 20 avr. Reprise de Noirmoutier sur les Vendéens. The Vendean Royalists were victorious, killing and wounding 5,000 French Republicans. Le général donna sa parole : « Je commande des Français contre des Français insurgés et puisque je peux épargner le sang des uns et des autres, je vous déclare que je promets la vie sauve aux Royalistes qui se rendront ». [27], On 24 June 1793, the commanders of the Catholic and royalist army issued an ultimatum to the mayor of Nantes, Baco de la Chapelle to surrender the city or they would massacre the garrison. Article précédent (05/01/2011) L'AGENDA DU SOUVENIR VENDÉEN POUR 2011. He states that the war in the Vendée was not a one-sided mass killing and the Committee of Public Safety did not intend to exterminate the whole population of the Vendée; parts of the population were allied to the revolutionary government. Their attempts to take the city were unsuccessful. The Battle of Tiffauges was fought on 19 September 1793 between Royalist military leaders against Republican troops under Jean-Baptiste Kléber and Canclaux. Une autre division, débarquée à L'Herbaudière, marche également sur Noirmoutier-en-l'Île. Rappelé des Pyrénées-Orientales, ce général avait paru propre à faire la guerre de la Vendée par les connaissances locales qu’il avait acquises de ce dernier terrain, et par les plans qu’il avait soumis au comité de salut public. On 30 July 1796 the state of siege was raised in the western departments. When the revolutionaries wanted to reduce the Church's influence, people of the Vendée region considered this unimaginable. Ce guide, ouvert en juillet 2011, reste en construction et profite des indications apportées par le public sur le L@boratoire des internautes. Charette, general of the army of the Marais Breton, decided taking Noirmoutier was a priority.. On 9 October, Charette and his 3,000 men left Legé, which the republicans of general Nicolas Haxo occupied the next day. Since they were seen, in a way, that they were carrying anti-revolutionary babies, they were seen as primary targets. The Vendean army had its first serious defeat at the Battle of Cholet on 17 October; worse for the rebels, their army was split. The Battle of Montaigu was fought on 21 September 1793 when the Vendéens attacked general Jean-Michel Beysser's French Republican division. Le gros des troupes, 1 200 hommes commandés par Hyacinthe Hervouët de La Robrie, est à Barbâtre, pour défendre le passage du Gois, le seul endroit où la traversée par voie de terre était possible à marée basse[4]. 1912 Première réception de compagnons à la cayenne des Sables-d'Olonne. "[72], Debate over the characterization of the Vendée uprising was renewed in 2007, when nine deputies introduced a measure to the Assemblée nationale to officially recognize the republican actions as genocidal. Histoire en bref. In February, the National Convention had voted to approve a levy of three hundred thousand men, to be chosen by lot among the unmarried men in each commune. The further the land was from Paris (the seat of revolutionary power) the more counter-revolutionary uprisings occurred. La première guerre de Vendée: Mars 1793-Février 1795 Début de l'insurrection Vendéenne. After this the only Vendée towns remaining in the control of the Republic were Nantes and Les Sables d'Olonne. [32], On July 5, 1793, the First Battle of Châtillon took place at Châtillon-sur-Sèvre near the commune of Mauléon. "Relevé des graffitis du château de Noirmoutier". Alexandre Pineau dirige l'ensemble des forces royalistes. Le combat s'engagea et fut d'abord à l'avantage des Vendéens, les soldats républicains étaient éprouvés par deux jours de confinement dans les bateaux de transports et l'artillerie vendéenne était parvenue à faire échouer la frégate La Nymphe. D'autres troupes furent détachées pour prendre L'Épine. Cinquième Guerre de Vendée … Some of these prisoners were summarily executed by the Vendeens and their bodies later found in the castle wells by troops under Jean-Baptiste Kléber. [83] Other scholars who consider the massacres to be genocide include R.J. Rummel,[84] Jean Tulard,[85] and Anthony James Joes. Pourtant, malgré les protestations du général, les 1 800 défenseurs de la garnison seront fusillés sous les ordres des représentants en mission Prieur de la Marne, Louis Turreau et Bourbotte.