[citation needed], One of the first such moves involved the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee affair, which commenced in October 1946 and eventually led to the murder of Solomon Mikhoels and the arrest of many other members. In February 1941, Beria became Deputy chairman of the Council of People's Commissars, and in June, following Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union, he became a member of the State Defense Committee (GKO). Beria gave Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania serious prospects of national autonomy, possibly similarly to other Soviet satellite states in Europe. [57] According to Martin Sixsmith, in a BBC documentary, "Beria spent his nights having teenagers abducted from the streets and brought here for him to rape. The liberalisation was only relative: arrests and executions continued, and in 1940, as war approached, the pace of the purges again accelerated. Lavrenty Beria | Biography, Facts, & Execution | Britannica Under Nikolai Yezhov, the NKVD carried out the Great Purge: the imprisonment or execution of millions of people throughout the Soviet Union as alleged "enemies of the people". Georgian film director Tengiz Abuladze based the character of dictator Varlam Aravidze on Beria in his 1984 film Repentance. Leben. View the profiles of people named Lavrenti Beria. Wählen Sie aus erstklassigen Inhalten zum Thema Lavrenti Beria in höchster Qualität. He was a member of the Georgian Mingrelian ethnic group and grew up in a Georgian Orthodox family. [25] Beria's decision to avoid immediately calling a doctor was tacitly supported (or at least not opposed) by the rest of the Politburo, which was rudderless without Stalin's micromanagement and paralysed by a legitimate fear he would suddenly recover and take reprisals on anyone who had dared to act without his orders. "As Lavrenti Beria stood over Joseph Stalin's deathbed in early March 1953, witnesses observed that he could barely contain his pleasure in watching the leader edge toward his final moments of life." Transliteration Lavrentij Pavlovič Berija; * 17. In 1926, Beria became head of the Georgian OGPU; Sergo Ordzhonikidze, head of the Transcaucasian party, introduced him to fellow-Georgian Iosef Dzhughashvili, later known as Joseph Stalin. For this display of "Bolshevik ruthlessness", Beria was appointed head of the "secret-political division" of the Transcaucasian OGPU and was awarded the Order of the Red Banner. In 1951, Abakumov was replaced by Semyon Ignatyev, who further intensified the anti-Semitic campaign. Following the Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939, he was responsible for organising purges such as the Katyn massacre of 22,000 Polish officers and officials. [1] He simultaneously administered vast sections of the Soviet state, and acted as the de facto Marshal of the Soviet Union in command of NKVD field units responsible for barrier troops and Soviet partisan intelligence and sabotage operations on the Eastern Front during World War II. The enraged Beria declared, "Now it's not a bouquet, it's a wreath! Concurrently, the Soviet press began an anti-Semitic propaganda campaign, euphemistically termed the "struggle against rootless cosmopolitanism". Abakumov had headed SMERSH from 1943 to 1946; his relationship with Beria involved close collaboration (since Abakumov owed his rise to Beria's support and esteem), but also rivalry. During this period, Beria supervised deportations of people identified as political enemies from Poland and the Baltic states after Soviet occupation of those regions. Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (/ˈbɛriə/; Russian: Лавре́нтий Па́влович Бе́рия, IPA: [ˈbʲerʲiə]; Georgian: ლავრენტი ბერია, romanized: lavrent'i beria, IPA: [bɛriɑ]; 29 March [O.S. 1"), which built and tested a bomb by 29 August 1949. At least 330,000 people, including 10,000 technicians, were involved. At that time, a Bolshevik revolt took place in the Menshevik-controlled Democratic Republic of Georgia, and the Red Army subsequently invaded. The "Doctors' plot" was presumably invented by Stalin as an excuse to dismiss Beria and replace him with Ignatyev or some other MGB functionary. [2][3] After the war, he organised the communist takeover of the state institutions in central and eastern Europe. Lavrenti Pavlovich Beria, the head of Joseph Stalin's dreaded secret police apparatus, was born in Merkheuli, Russia, on March 29, 1899. As a result, Beria became an ally in Stalin's rise to power. Okunevskaya was arrested shortly afterwards and sentenced to solitary confinement in the Gulag, which she survived. [51] Simon Sebag-Montefiore, a biographer of Stalin, concluded the information "reveals a sexual predator who used his power to indulge himself in obsessive depravity". For the town in Australia, see, People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs (, First Deputy Premier and Soviet triumvirate. The Cheka became heavily involved in the conflict, which resulted in the defeat of the Mensheviks and the formation of the Georgian SSR. He was from the Mingrelian subethnic group of Georgians and grew up in a Georgian Orthodox family. Posts about Lavrentiy Beria written by Victor Vaughn. He used the opportunity to settle many old scores in the politically turbulent Transcaucasian republics. Stalin's security chief was executed on December 23rd, 1953. [63], In 2012, his alleged personal diary from 1938 to 1953 was published in Russia. The historical consensus is that Khrushchev prepared an elaborate ambush, convening a meeting of the Presidium on 26 June, where he suddenly launched a scathing attack on Beria, accusing him of being a traitor and spy in the pay of British intelligence. After the Red Army captured the city on 28 April 1920, Beria was saved from execution because there was not enough time to arrange his shooting and replacement; it may also have been that Sergei Kirov intervened. But it was not to be. However, the new NKVD chief, Sergei Kruglov, was not a Beria man. By 1938, however, the oppression had become so extensive that it was damaging the infrastructure, economy and even the armed forces of the Soviet state, prompting Stalin to wind the purge down. © Copyright 2021 History Today Ltd. Company no. [29] When Beria left the room, he broke the sombre atmosphere by shouting loudly for his driver, his voice echoing with what Stalin's daughter Svetlana Alliluyeva called "the ring of triumph unconcealed". [18], In January 1946, Beria resigned as chief of the NKVD while retaining general control over national security matters as Deputy Prime Minister and Curator of the Organs of State Security under Stalin. Lavrentiy Beria is one of the most infamous politicians of the 20th century, whose activities are still widely discussed in modern society. The play is a fictionalised account of the events leading up to Stalin's death. Beria recommended that Stalin install a communist leader in the occupied territories. La bande sonore est de Gilbert Courtois. During this time, he began to attack fellow members of the Georgian Communist Party, particularly Gaioz Devdariani, who served as Minister of Education of the Georgian SSR. [15][16], With Stalin nearing 70, a concealed struggle for succession amongst his entourage dominated Kremlin politics in the post-war years. Lavrentia Beria was the head of this bloody secret police for most of his life and was feared even by his colleagues. stemming. Example sentences with "Lavrentiy Beria", translation memory. Lavrentij Pavlovitj Berija også Lavrenti Beria (russisk: Лаврентий Павлович Берия, tr. [citation needed], When Beria finally realised what was happening and plaintively appealed to Malenkov (an old friend) to speak for him, Malenkov silently hung his head and pressed a button on his desk. They also constructed test facilities, such as those at Semipalatinsk and in the Novaya Zemlya archipelago. Et s'il est exact (faudrait sourcer) qu'i… He earlier worked for the anti-Bolshevik Mussavatists in Baku. That prompted a "frantic" dash for their own limousines to intercept him at the Kremlin. [19] Kruglov and Abakumov moved expeditiously to replace Beria's men in the security apparatus leadership with new people. Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (or Beriya) is a Georgian politician and the current Chairman of the Central Committee of the Menshevik Party and Minister of War of Georgia. The NKVD ensured the necessary security for the project. By the most likely account,... On 26 June 1953, Beria was arrested and held in an undisclosed location near Moscow. He and his confederates were taken away and promptly shot. [35] The Gulag system was transferred to the Ministry of Justice, and a mass release of over a million prisoners was announced, although only prisoners convicted for "non-political" crimes were released. Beria's mother, Marta Jaqeli (1868–1955), was a deeply religious, church-going woman (she spent much time in church and died in a church building); she was previously married and widowed before marrying Beria's father, Pavel Khukhaevich Beria (1872… He then raped her, telling her: "Scream or not, it doesn't matter." La urma urmei este vorba despre Lavrenti Beria, încarnarea terorii comuniste, artizanul gulagurilor şi mâna dreaptă a lui Iosif Stalin, cel mai mare călău din istorie. After 1946, Beria formed an alliance with Malenkov to counter Zhdanov's rise. When the death sentence was passed, according to General Moskalenko, Beria fell to the floor and begged on his knees for mercy. He would point out young women to be taken to his mansion, where wine and a feast awaited them. Lavrenty Beria, the son of a landowner in Abkhazia, was born near Sukhumi, Russia, on 29th March, 1899. Märzjul./ 29. In 1942, when the Race 's Conquest Fleet invaded Earth, Beria was critical to … Pravda announced Beria’s fall on July 10th, crediting it to the initiative of Comrade Malenkov and referring to Beria’s ‘ criminal activities against the Party and the State’. In other international issues, Beria (along with Mikoyan) correctly foresaw the victory (1949–1950) of Mao Zedong in the Chinese Civil War and greatly helped the Chinese Communists by letting them use Soviet-occupied Manchuria as a staging area and arranging large weapons shipments to the People's Liberation Army, mainly from the recently captured equipment of the Japanese Kwantung Army. [54], Stalin, and other high-ranking Soviets, expressed distrust of Beria. Beria appears in the third episode ("Superbomb") of the four-part 2007 BBC docudrama series Nuclear Secrets, played by Boris Isarov. Beria seemed to be in a perfect position – his ally, a now-forgotten figure called Georgy Malenkov, took over as the supreme leader, and Beria’s own dossier of dirt on his rivals, gathered during his years as chief of the secret police, meant he could surely keep others under his thumb. Lavrenti Pavlovitsj Beria (Russisch: Лавре́нтий Па́влович Бе́рия, Georgisch: ლავრენტი ბერია, Lavrenti Pavles dze Beria) (Mercheoeli, 29 maart 1899 – Moskou, 23 december 1953) was een Sovjet-Russisch politicus van Georgische afkomst (de zogenoemde 'Georgische groep' binnen de communistische partij, waar ook Stalin toe behoorde). "[55] After taking an interest in Marshal of the Soviet Union Kliment Voroshilov's daughter-in-law during a party at their summer dacha, Beria shadowed their car closely all the way back to the Kremlin, terrifying Voroshilov's wife. Beria’s son Sergo believed this and says he was told of his father’s death on June 26th. He soon succeeded Yezhov, who was shot on Stalin’s orders, apparently at Beria’s prompting. Beria's uncompromising ruthlessness in his duties and skill at producing results culminated in his success in overseeing the Soviet atomic bomb project. 1 History 1.1 Early Life 1.2 Political Career 2 See also Beria was born in Merkheuli, near Sukhum, in the Sukhum district of Kutaisi governorate of modern Georgia (then part of Imperial Russia). Lavrenty Beria in Worldwar Lavrenty Beria (1899-1963) was head of the NKVD in the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin and Vyacheslav Molotov until he was killed leading a coup to overthrow the latter. Beria was a depraved sadist who personally tortured and killed many people. Lavrentij Pavlovítsj Beria (Лавре́нтий Па́влович Бе́рия á kyrillísku letri; ლავრენტი პავლეს ძე ბერია á georgísku) (29. mars 1899 – 23. desember 1953) var sovéskur stjórnmálamaður, hermarskálkur Sovétríkjanna og lengi formaður leyniþjónustunnar NKVD í stjórnartíð Jósefs Stalín. Transliteration Lavrentij Pavlovič Berija; * 17. It may have happened that way, but it seems unlikely. Beria is the central character in Good Night, Uncle Joe by Canadian playwright David Elendune. Although he had never held a traditional military command, Beria made a significant contribution to the victory of the Soviet Union in World War II through his organisation of wartime production and his use of partisans. Beria is a significant character in the opening chapters of the 1998 novel Archangel by British novelist Robert Harris. Stalin had voted to appoint Georgy Malenkov as head of the NKVD, but he was over-ruled. In December 1944, Beria's NKVD was assigned to supervise the Soviet atomic bomb project ("Task No. Beria ordered the executions of Devdariani's brothers George and Shalva, who held important positions in the Cheka and the Communist Party respectively. In August 1938, Stalin brought Beria to Moscow as deputy head of the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD), the ministry which oversaw the state security and police forces. Skip to content. The cost of the war still weighed heavily on the Soviet economy. The East German uprising convinced Molotov, Malenkov, and Nikolai Bulganin that Beria's policies were dangerous and destabilising to Soviet power. Lavrentij Pavlovič Berija (gruzijski: ლავრენტი ბერია, ruski: Лаврентий Павлович Берия) (Merkheuli, Gruzija, 29. ožujka 1899.- Moskva, 23. prosinca 1953.) Lavrenti Pavlovitš Beria (gruusia ლავრენტი ბერია, vene Лаврентий Павлович Берия; 29. märts (vkj 17. märts) 1899 Merheuli, Suhhumi ringkond, Khuthaisi kubermang – 23. detsember 1953 Moskva) oli Nõukogude Liidu riigitegelane, Nõukogude Liidu marssal (9. juuli 1945 – 31. detsember 1953), Jossif Stalini lähemaid kaastöölisi Nõukogude Liidu juhtkonnas. Khrushchev then tried to draw Malenkov to his side, warning that "Beria is sharpening his knives". After being arrested, he was tried for treason and other offenses, sentenced to death, and executed on 23 December 1953. Toutes les recherches récentes seront supprimées. Khrushchev's opportunity came in June 1953 when a spontaneous uprising against the East German Communist regime broke out in East Berlin. [27], Khrushchev wrote in his memoirs that Beria had, immediately after Stalin's stroke, gone about "spewing hatred against [Stalin] and mocking him". [23] Lozgachev tried to explain to Beria that the unconscious Stalin (still in his soiled clothing) was "sick and needed medical attention". The Polytechnicum's curriculum concentrated on the petroleum industry. He now improbably began to urge an easing of Stalinism that went further than his colleagues were ready for. On 26 June 1953, Beria was arrested and held in an undisclosed location near Moscow. Voroshilov became Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (i.e., the head of state). Documents sur Lavrentij Pavlovič Beriâ (1899-1953) (22 ressources dans data.bnf.fr) Livres (22) Lavrenti Béria (2018) Delo Lavrentiâ Berii (2015) [21] Starting in 1948, Abakumov initiated several investigations against these leaders, which culminated with the arrest in November 1952 of Rudolf Slánský, Bedřich Geminder, and others in Czechoslovakia. Au Politburo, la chose était connue de tous : Lavrenti est un homme à femmes, ne rate pas une jupe. [49] Beria's body was cremated and the remains buried in Communal Grave No. [50] Beria’s execution was hailed by Georgy Zhukov, Konstantin Rokossovsky, Semyon Timoshenko, Nikolai Bulganin, Aleksandr Vasilevsky, Kliment Voroshilov, Semyon Budyonny and Rodion Malinovsky who at the time all held the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union, as well as Vasily Chuikov, who like Batitsky was a future Marshal of the Soviet Union. [47] He was shot through the forehead by General Pavel Batitsky. Stalin, who was also seeking to undermine Beria, was thrilled by the detailed records kept by Sarkisov, demanding: "Send me everything this asshole writes down! They arrived at Stalin's dacha at Kuntsevo at 03:00 on 2 March 1953, after being called by Khrushchev and Bulganin. "[24], Calling a doctor was deferred for a full 12 hours after Stalin was rendered paralysed, incontinent and unable to speak. Lavrenti Pavlovich Beria, the head of Joseph Stalin 's dreaded secret police apparatus, was born in Merkheuli, Russia, on March 29, 1899. He was from the Mingrelian ethnic subgroup and grew up in a Georgian Orthodox family. He was an extremely controversial personality in the history of the USSR and went through a long political path full of … fr Après la mort de Staline et de Béria, on cessa les préparatifs pour le procès et on relâcha les personnes arrêtées. On 13 January 1953, the biggest anti-Semitic affair in the Soviet Union started with an article in Pravda – it began what became known as the Doctors' plot, in which a number of the country's prominent Jewish physicians were accused of poisoning top Soviet leaders and arrested. Er besuchte eine polytechnische Schule in Baku und war in einem illegalen marxistischen Studienkreis als Schatzmeister tätig.. Geheimdienstler in Aserbaidschan und Georgien. [9] She was 17, a trained scientist from an aristocratic family. [22][page needed], Stalin's aide Vasili Lozgachev reported that Beria and Malenkov were the first members of the Politburo to see Stalin's condition when he was found unconscious. [citation needed], Beria and the others were tried by a "special session" (специальное судебное присутствие) of the Supreme Court of the Soviet Union on 23 December 1953 with no defence counsel and no right of appeal. Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria (or Lavrentiy Beria) (29 March 1899– 23 December 1953) was the leader of the secret police of the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin 's regime. On June 26th, apparently, at a hastily convened meeting of the Presidium, Khrushchev launched a blistering attack on Beria, accusing him of being a cynical careerist, long in the pay of British intelligence, and no true Communist believer. En 1921, il … Lavrenti Pavlovich Beria was a Georgian, like Stalin, who called him ‘my Himmler’. The document was signed by an LB, believed by Grant (and the mysterious Tip Tok-Toh) to be Lavrentiy Beria (written as Lavrenti Beria in the novel). Eventually, he ordered Sarkisov to destroy the list as a security risk, but Sarkisov retained a secret copy. in Mercheuli bei Sochumi, Gouvernement Kutaissi, Russisches Kaiserreich, heute Georgien; † 23. . Né en Géorgie dans une famille de paysans, Beria adhère au Parti communiste en 1917 à Bakou, où il obtient son diplôme d'architecte en 1919. In 1920 or 1921 (accounts vary) Beria joined the Cheka, the original Bolshevik secret police. On December 17th, Rudenko’s office announced that Beria and six accomplices, encouraged by foreign intelligence agencies, had been conspiring for many years to seize power in the Soviet Union in order to restore capitalism. [10] When Stalin's purge of the Communist Party and government began in 1934 after the assassination of Leningrad party boss Sergei Kirov (1 December 1934), Beria ran the purges in Transcaucasia. en After the death of Stalin and Lavrentiy Beria, the preparations for the trial were stopped and the arrested persons were released. Beria angrily dismissed his claims as panic-mongering and quickly left, ordering him, "Don't bother us, don't cause a panic and don't disturb Comrade Stalin! Beria's mother, Marta Ivanovna, was a deeply religious, church-going woman (she spent so much time in church that she died there); she was previously married and widowed before marrying Beria's father, Pavel Khukhaevich Beria, a landowner fr… In the 1992 HBO movie Stalin, Roshan Seth was cast as Beria. At the opening of Kingsley Amis' The Alteration, Lavrentiy Beria figures as "Monsignor Laurentius", paired with the similarly black-clad cleric "Monsignor Henricus" of the Holy Office (i.e., the Inquisition); the one to whom Beria was compared by Stalin in our own timeline: Heinrich Himmler. A coup d'état by Nikita Khrushchev, with help from Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov in June 1953, removed Beria from power. Within days of the events in Germany, Khrushchev persuaded the other leaders to support a Party coup against Beria; Beria's principal ally Malenkov abandoned him. In 1953, Nikita Krushchev ordered Beria to be executed as a traitor. In 1944, as Russia had repelled the German invasion, Beria was placed in charge of the various ethnic minorities accused of anti-sovietism and/or collaboration with the invaders, including the Balkars, Karachays, Chechens, Ingush, Crimean Tatars, Kalmyks, Pontic Greeks, and Volga Germans. Shortly after Stalin's death, Beria announced triumphantly to the Politburo that he had "done [Stalin] in" and "saved [us] all", according to Molotov's memoirs. [46] Beria was executed separately; he allegedly pleaded on his knees before collapsing to the floor wailing. The assertion that Stalin was poisoned by Beria's associates has been supported by Edvard Radzinsky and other authors.[31][27][32][33]. [28], After Stalin's death on 5 March 1953, Beria's ambitions sprang into full force. Known for his violent, brutal, and ruthless measures, including kidnapping, torture, and rape, he advanced withi… Zhdanov had served as the Communist Party leader in Leningrad during the war, and by 1946 had charge of all cultural matters. Altogether, 14 Czechoslovak Communist leaders, 11 of them Jewish, were tried, convicted, and executed (see Slánský trial). Troops in Security of Railway Infrastructure, Troops in Security of Industrial Infrastructure of Specially Importance, This page was last edited on 23 January 2021, at 04:59. Beria is described as the boss of the Soviet state's security and is in attendance at a meal with the main character and Stalin. Although he did not rise to full membership until 1946, he was by then one of the senior leaders of the Soviet state. [34] He reorganised the MVD and drastically reduced its economic power and penal responsibilities. en He was later arrested on the order of Lavrentiy Beria, then the first secretary of the Trancaucasian region. Beria craved the vast financial resources that another (more sustained) relationship with the United States could provide. Order of Victory), as he did for most other Soviet Marshals. From October 1940 to February 1942, the NKVD under Beria carried out a new purge of the Red Army and related industries. This decision is noted as "extraordinary" by the historian Simon Sebag-Montefiore but also consistent with the standard Stalinist policy of deferring all decision-making (no matter how necessary or obvious) without official orders from higher authority. During World War II, he took on major domestic responsibilities and mobilised the millions of people imprisoned in NKVD Gulag camps into wartime production. Accounts of Beria's fall vary considerably. sovjetski je političar, šef policije i ratni zločinac. When Beria complimented Alexander Poskrebyshev's daughter on her beauty, Poskrebyshev quickly pulled her aside and instructed her, "Don't ever accept a lift from Beria. Beria attended a technical school in Sukhumi, and later claimed to have joined the Bolsheviks in March 1917 while a student in the Baku Polytechnicum (subsequently known as the Azerbaijan State Oil Academy). Beria was second most powerful, and given Malenkov's personal weakness, was poised to become the power behind the throne and ultimately leader himself. [56] The Russian government acknowledged Sarkisov's handwritten list of Beria's victims in 2003; the victims' names will be released in 2028. During his time at Baku, Beria joined the Bolshevik faction of the Communist Party and was actively engaged in counterintelligence and revolutionary activity in Georgia. [26] Stalin's suspicion of doctors in the wake of the Doctors' Plot was well known at the time of his sickness; his private physician was already being tortured in the basement of the Lubyanka for suggesting the leader required more bed rest. [39] Beria's policies in Ukraine alarmed Khrushchev, for whom Ukraine was a power base. Beria, who went on to run the Soviet network of slave-labour camps, was notorious for his sadistic enjoyment of torture and his taste for beating and raping women and violating young girls. The veteran Molotov and others chimed in against Beria and Khrushchev put a motion for his instant dismissal. 17 March] 1899 – 23 December 1953) was a Georgian Bolshevik and Soviet politician, Marshal of the Soviet Union and state security administrator, chief of the Soviet security, and chief of the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD) under Joseph Stalin during World War II, and promoted to deputy premier under Stalin from 1941. In June 1937, he said in a speech, "Let our enemies know that anyone who attempts to raise a hand against the will of our people, against the will of the party of Lenin and Stalin, will be mercilessly crushed and destroyed."[11]. [citation needed] In September, Beria was appointed head of the Main Administration of State Security (GUGB) of the NKVD, and in November he succeeded Yezhov as NKVD head. Bunker, where Lavrentiy Beria was executed On 26 June 1953, Beria was arrested and held in an undisclosed location near Moscow. [41][42][43] Beria said of East Germany "It's not even a real state but one kept in being only by Soviet troops."[44]. In 1953, Nikita Krushchev ordered Beria to be executed as a traitor. Beria administered the vast expansion of the Gulag labour camps, and was primarily responsible for overseeing the secret detention facilities for scientists and engineers known as sharashkas. Lavrenti Beria; em russo Лаврентий Павлович Берия, Lavrenti Pavlovitch Beria; Abecásia, 29 de março de 1899 — Moscou, 23 de dezembro de 1953) foi um político soviético e chefe da NKVD na Geórgia. Lawrenti Beria wurde 1899 als Sohn einer armen mingrelischen Bauernfamilie bei Sochumi in Abchasien geboren. Beria undertook some measures of liberalisation immediately after Stalin's death. Instead he took her to his dacha, where he offered to free her father and grandmother from prison if she submitted. Beria is a significant character in the opening chapters of the 1998 novel Archangel by British novelist Robert Harris. Lavrenti Pavlovitch Beria (Lavrenti Pavles dze Beria, en géorgien : ლავრენტი პავლეს ძე ბერია ; Lavrentiï Pavlovitch Beria, en russe : Лавре́нтий Па́влович Бе́рия), né le 29 mars 1899 à Merkheoul (Empire russe, actuelle république séparatiste d'Abkhazie) et mort le 23 décembre 1953 à … 3 at Donskoi Monastery Cemetery in Moscow. During his time at Baku, Beria joined the Bolshevik faction of the Communist Party and was actively engaged in counterintelligence and revolutionary activity in Georgia. Many of Beria's subordinates, proteges and associates were also arrested, among them Vsevolod Merkulov, Bogdan Kobulov, Sergey Goglidze, Vladimir Dekanozov, Pavel Meshik, and Lev Vlodzimirskiy. Such charges deeply disturbed Beria, as he had directly ordered the sale of large amounts of Czech arms to Israel. Alternative versions have him shot or strangled months before, with a double standing trial in December. According to historian Amy Knight, "Smith noted that Beria's escapades were common knowledge among embassy personnel because his house was on the same street as a residence for Americans, and those who lived there saw girls brought to Beria's house late at night in a limousine."[59]. By 1922, Beria was deputy head of the Georgian branch of Cheka's successor, the OGPU. He joined the Bolshevik wing of the Communist Party in 1917 and was active in Stalin's native Georgia during the October 1917 Revolution. [citation needed], At Beria's trial in 1953, it became known that he had committed numerous rapes during the years he was NKVD chief. With Stalin's approval, Beria's NKVD executed them in what became known as the Katyn massacre. Pince-nez doré. März jul. Known for his violent, brutal, and ruthless measures, including kidnapping, torture, and rape, he advanced withi… [citation needed]. In one instance, when Stalin learned his daughter Svetlana was alone with Beria at his house, he telephoned her and told her to leave immediately. [citation needed], Beria and all the other defendants were sentenced to death on the day of the trial. Stalin had begun to encourage Abakumov to form his own network inside the MGB to counter Beria's dominance of the power ministries. Stalin personally never thought much of it, and neither commented publicly on his performance nor awarded him recognition (i.e. 1 History 1.1 Early Life 1.2 Political Career 2 See also Beria was born in Merkheuli, near Sukhum, in the Sukhum district of Kutaisi governorate of modern Georgia (then part of Imperial Russia). As a student, Beria distinguished himself in mathematics and the sciences. / 29. An ethnic Mingrelian (a small nation closely-related to Georgians), during the Russian Civil War (1918-1921) he specialized in spying and undercover operations for the Bolsheviks in neighboring Azerbaijan.